The DTU on “Enforcement in multi-level regulatory systems” will deal with various challenges of enforcement that are peculiar to contemporary multi-level systems in Europe and beyond, most notably challenges relating to the interaction and integration of different enforcement levels and to digitalisation. These challenges will be approached from transversal and sectoral perspectives, which are reflected in two mutually complementary ‘research pillars’. The first research pillar, taking a transversal perspective, will encompass not only legal challenges, but also broader, policy-oriented enforcement challenges (including governance and compliance issues) with reference to their legal and political context. This broad perspective will be supplemented with a more legalistic approach under the second pillar of the research programme, which will focus on the enforcement challenges in three specific economic sectors that are of direct relevance for Luxembourg’s economy, namely the banking and financial sectors, the IT and the satellite communications sectors. Under this pillar, the design of and the interaction between substantive regulatory rules and their multi-level enforcement by means of different legal enforcement tools will receive special attention, though without neglecting the underlying policy interests of those mechanisms.