Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer among women worldwide. Although cytological screening has notably reduced new cases in Europe the disease still causes 57000 incident cases and 25000 deaths each ear. Many countries including Luxembourg have introduced vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) in 2008, but the efficacy and effectiveness outside of clinical trial settings remains to be determined.The principal aim of our project is to assess the efficacy of the existing HPV vaccination programme in Luxembourg. We will first do this by conducting an epidemiological analysis of vaccination records from the national health insurance and second, by conducting a large HPV prevalence study among a representative sample of vaccinated and unvaccinated young women in Luxembourg. We are in particular interested to assess whether the frequency and distribution of HPV genotypes differs between vaccinated and unvaccinated women, after controlling for various important risk factors including sexual activity. We further investigate the national cervical screening programme and whether the introduction of the vaccine has already had an effect on cytological abnormalities detected.This project is a collaboration between three pivotal actors in the Public Health landscape in Luxembourg including the Direction de Santé, the Inspection Générale de la Sécurité Sociale and the Laboratoire National de Santé. This project will be instrumental for developing a comprehensive national strategy approach of cervical prevention that includes HPV vaccination, HPV testing and cytological screening.