The international conference ‘How do educational systems shape educational inequalities?’, organised by members of the Institute of Education and Society at the University of Luxembourg, centres on questions of how and via which social factors and processes characteristics of educational systems produce educational inequalities along different axes of inequality (social origin, gender, ethnicity/migration background as well as other less well-studied factors like ability, region or religion) and certain intersections (e.g. male working-class migrants). This involves detailed analysis of links between different levels of sociological analysis (macro level/society, meso level/institutions, micro level/individuals). Such characteristics include their institutional settings, programmes, societal conditions associated with characteristics of the education system (overall inequality level, welfare regime, etc.). Institutional settings are conceptualised in terms of incentive and opportunity structures as well as in terms of limitations regarding educational attainment. These macro and meso structures in concert determine advantages and disadvantages in educational opportunities of different social groups and therefore educational inequalities. Following latest developments in inequality research, multiple inequalities in terms of additive disadvantages – i.e. cumulation of disadvantages (e.g. gender-specific disadvantages plus class-specific disadvantages – and intersectionalities in terms of amplifications of inequalities – i.e. even stronger disadvantages at the intersection of different axes of (educational) inequality – need to be taken into account. Such disadvantages also cumulate over the life course. Focusing on these issues, the conference is directed both to an international scientific audience, policy makers and the broader public – since reforms of education system and the search for ‘ideal’ institutional settings for teaching and learning are at the center of current public debates in and outside Luxembourg.The scientific programme includes keynote speeches, presentations as well as poster presentations, round table talks and a public round table discussion. The different sessions will address the following issues:a) Education Systems and Inequalities along the axe of social originb) Education Systems and Gender Inequalities in Educationc) Education Systems and Migration-specific inequalitiesd) Methodological Issues of the comparison of education systemse) Changing education systems and changing educational inqualitiesDiscussion: Is there an ideal education system? What aspects contribute most to equity, excellence and other desirable outcomes?The international conference on education system will take place from 2nd – 4th July 2014 at the Neumünster Abbey Cultural Center in Luxembourg-Grund.