The fifth generation (5G) terrestrial communication systems and the next-generation satellite systems have encountered the same challenge, that is, how to use limited radio resources to serve a massive number of user terminals and to achieve ultra-high spectrum/energy efficiency. Coming to meet the stringent performance requirements, significant research efforts in 5G have been devoted to develop new multi-user access solutions in recent years, i.e., non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA). In various application scenarios, NOMA has demonstrated significant performance gains over conventional orthogonal multiple access schemes. The future 5G ecosystem will intrinsically integrate the high-throughput satellite as a complementary and augmented part. For achieving high spectrum efficiency in a multi-beam satellite system, interference mitigation and spectrum sharing are of importance. NOMA can be a vital approach to enable aggressive frequency reuse and alleviating co-channel interference. Recent promising results of NOMA in 5G and the limitations of the current satellite systems have stimulated the research interest towards investigating advanced NOMA based satellite-5G systems.In the proposed project “ROSETTA” (Resource Optimization for integrated Satellite-5G nETworks with non-orThogonal multiple Access), we are interested in applying the emerging NOMA solutions in 5G to satellite networks, and exploiting their potential synergies in relevant satellite-5G applications. The goal of the project is to significantly boost the performance of multi-beam satellite systems and hybrid satellite-5G systems by applying new types of radio access solutions NOMA, developing advanced signal processing solutions, and optimizing resource management. The project targets the emerging research issues of a) how to satisfy unprecedented performance requirements by using limited radio resources in future satellite-5G systems, b) how to keep seamless integration between the satellite component and the currently evolved 5G terrestrial system, c) how to obtain substantial synergies of integrating NOMA to different satellite-5G application scenarios. To address these issues and challenges, the proposed project takes a holistic view in resource optimization and signal processing. The research core of ROSETTA consists of architecture design, system modelling, algorithm development, and performance characterizations, aiming to largely improve the system performance, e.g., throughput, energy, number of connected user terminals. ROSETTA will develop new types of space-telecom applications, and bring promising avenues for satellite and cellular networks. The research activities in ROSETTA will foster new knowledge of the early-stage applications between 5G new radio access techniques and hybrid satellite-5G networks. The results derived from ROSETTA will enhance their maturity towards the future commercial satellite-5G ecosystem.