In the last decades, various demographic and socio-economic shifts have resulted in significant changes in food choices and dietary habits. This so-called “nutrition transition” had negative effects on nutrient intake and consequently on population health. Poor diet quality is a risk factor for many chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, obesity, cancer, and type 2 diabetes, which have become the leading causes of death in developed countries. The traditional “reductionist” approach, which focuses solely on nutrients and/or food, ignores further complexities of the relationship between diet and disease. Therefore, the measurement of overall diet quality has recently been suggested as an alternative and more informative approach to assess diet-disease relationships.In collaboration with renowned experts from the University of South Carolina, this follow-up DIQUA-LUX project aims principally to examine the diet-cardiometabolic risk association, by using an innovative approach, based on the inflammatory potential of the diet. Additionally, the performance of our already developed Recommendation Compliance index (RCI), specific to our population residing in Luxembourg will be assessed, against an accepted independent measure of diet quality, such as the DQI-I, HEI, and others. Our validated indicator will help to monitor and identify the potential biological, behavioral and environmental determinants of overall diet quality of Luxembourg’s population, with a focus on health inequalities and smoking cessation. The outcomes of this research can enhance our understanding of dietary practice and help to develop an evidence-based prevention policy.The research objectives will be achieved by using the recent nationally representative database of ORISCAV-LUX survey, a nationwide observational population-based survey.